Iran-iraq: Mep Ana Gomes, Savior Of Scavengers?

The opening paragraph is a tragic parallel depicting a controversial debate which took place in European Parliament on 24 April last. The situation arose when several EP groups put to vote a resolution to prevent the possibility of a Humanitarian Catastrophe involving 3500 activists enchained in Camp Ashraf- Iraq, by the pro- Iranian Movafaghal Robaee under direct orders of Tehrans’ religious Leader Khamenei.

It has been months since the fate of the threatened 3500 opposition members to Iranian regime in Iraq had been reported in news media as a Humanitarian crisis to be prevented.
Amnesty International, the ICRC, UNHCR, UNAMI, the European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, and over 2,000 European Parliamentarians have all made their positions very clear in support of the rights of Ashraf residents.

The issue is unanimously favored worldwide with some exceptions: Ms. Ana Maria Gomes of Portugal, a socialist member of the EU.

While in an international campaign, Euro-MPs were trying to establish a logical solution for the safekeeping of the 3500 opposition members in Camp Ashraf, Ms. Gomes alone played judge, jury and witness to arbitrarily condemn the residents to a fate with no guarantee.

Mrs.Gomes made repeated inflammatory and dangerous statements which could have amounted to breach of International Humanitarian Law. Her fictitious argument was far beyond the mandate of an impartial, justice seeking MEP and unfortunately paved the way for a humanitarian catastrophe.

Impartial and Lawful Or Peremptory?

“Ana Maria Gomes; Mr President, some in this Chamber want to present the People’s Mujahedin (PMOI) as heroes or a true alternative to the Iranian regime. They are neither.”*
Would this opening tenet by the Honorable representative, resemble anything but a prejudgment soaked with poisoned verbal rhetoric deliberated with instant urge to eradicate a problem in due process?

Of course Mrs. Gomes, being a clever politician, and having worked much with her Iranian counterparts (3), had no illusions as to what may happen to the victims. Mrs. Gomes refurnished the facade of her support for the mullahs in beautifully politicized words to neutralize her rivals and said; “This resolution is not about the Iranian regime, which has been repressing its people, mismanaging the country and destabilizing the Middle East for decades. Anyone who presents a vote for the PSE and Green amendments, which aim to balance the tone of this resolution, as a vote for the Iranian regime, is either arguing in bad faith or has simply run out of arguments”.

The resolution was finally passed in support for the complete implementation of IHL and IL and Conventions with relation to Ashraf residents (4)

Facts and Fiction
The lies the mullahs have repeated in the past 20 years are echoed in Ms Gomes’ bold statement in the session. She takes the word of a regime which uses terror at home and sponsors it abroad.

The following is a distinction between fictions mandated by the Iranian terror machine and established facts:

FICTION; Ms.Gomes “In my trips to Iraq, I have heard Kurdish, Sunni, Shia, Christian, Turkman leaders and others complain about the role of the People’s Mujahedin as a tool of Saddam Hussein in the 1988 Anfar campaign, which culminated in massacres such as Halabja.”

FACT; The fact is that PMOI played absolutely no role in the suppression of Kurdish and Shiite uprisings in 1991 in Iraq. Months before the outbreak of the Persian Gulf War, in fact, the Mojahedin evacuated all of its bases in the Kurdish areas in the north and in the south of Iraq, relocating instead in the central region, near the Iran-Iraq frontier. The purpose was to avoid involvement in internal Iraqi affairs. 5

In a 1999 letter to a court in the Netherlands, a spokesman for the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq (later Iraq’s Foreign Minister)) wrote, “(We) can confirm that the Mujahedeen were not involved in suppressing the Kurdish people neither during the uprising nor in its aftermath. We have not come across any evidence to suggest that the Mujahedeen have exercised any hostility towards the people of Iraqi Kurdistan.” 6

In 1995, International Educational Development, a non-governmental organization with consultative status with the United Nations, refuted the charges about the PMOI’s role in the crackdown on the Kurdish uprising, noting that they were part of a well-orchestrated misinformation campaign by the Iranian regime to discredit the PMOI. “From our independent investigation and discussion with parties involved, we find these allegations false,” wrote International Educational Development, a non-governmental organization with consultative status with the United Nations, on August 22, 1995. 7

And in a statement on December 2, 2006, a senior official of the Iraqi Patriotic Union of Kurdistan announced unequivocally that the “PMOI has never acted against the Kurdish people in Iraq, and has not been involved in any suppressive action against them. The rumors spread by the Ministry of Intelligence of Iran are all false and a conspiracy.”

FICTION; Ms. Gomes; “We must understand the reluctance of the Iraqi Government to let Camp Ashraf continue to be a nuisance to their good neighbourly relations (2) with Iran. For Iraqis, Iran cannot be wished away. It is there. It is a powerful neighbour. It is true that the People’s Mujahedin are no longer on the terrorist list, but they are still an opaque cult which brutalises those of its members who wish to defect.”

FACT; the Fact is that only a week before the residents were barricaded in Camp Ashraf and deprived of outside world contact by Iraqi security forces, it was the Iranian regime Supreme leader Khamenei who had in a televised, message called the “Mujahedin, a cult and hypocrite” a threat to his regime and demanded Iraqi government to as good will gesture eradicate the camp and its residents for a “good neighborly relation”.

FICTION: Ms.Gomes; “We want to present the whole picture of human rights violations and threats in and around Camp Ashraf… Above all, we express our concern about the reported practices of mental and physical manipulation and severe human rights violations within the cult. In short, this is about the individual human rights of the people in Camp Ashraf. Let us have these people and their human rights in mind when we vote.”

FACT; It has been some moths since Ashraf residents have been individually and independently interviewed by ICRC and UNHCR representatives as a gesture to verify all repugnant, ill manifested accusations – whose source is no other than the Iranian mullahs’ propaganda machine, in order to construct an effective solution for the crisis.

On the other hand, whether some individuals might consider the PMOI (or any other political organization) to have features of a “cult” has nothing whatever to do with whether the individuals or PMOI members have the right to life on the basic values stipulated in the Basic principles of UN charter of Human rights which state the right to take refuge under situations when their lives and livelihood is at stake. Any attempt to jeopardize this under critical times of physical and psychological threat will constitute a crime against Humanity.

Not only these independent observations, but statements by senior U.S. officers who spent time in Ashraf sharply dispute charges that the People of Ashraf are being abused, brainwashed, or held against their will. Colonel (now Brig. Gen.) David Phillips commanded the 89th Military Police Brigade and, in that role, was responsible for the safety and security of the Camp for all of 2004.

Regarding charges that abuse was occurring at Ashraf, he wrote in a letter dated May 27, 2005:

I directed my subordinate units to investigate each allegation. In many cases I personally led inspection teams on unannounced visits to the [PMOI] facilities where the alleged abuses were reported to occur… Each report of torture, kidnapping and psychological deprivation turned out to be unsubstantiated… I was exceptionally impressed with the dedication of the female units. These units were professional and displayed strong support for freedom, democracy and equality for women. 8

Another United States Army officer, Lt. Col. Julie S. Norman, commanded the MP battalion at Camp Ashraf from September 2005 to August 2006. She wrote, in a letter dated August 24, 2006, that the environment in Ashraf was quite open and that “normally, PMOI members invite their families, friends and colleagues who live in Iran or foreign countries to Ashraf for visits.” She went on to describe the democratic, peaceful, and calming influence the PMOI exerted over their Iraqi environment:

The PMOI has encouraged and assisted various Iraqi groups to join the political process and dialogue with U.S. forces. This clearly indicates that the ideals of the PMOI are democracy and freedom… This action by the PMOI has helped to establish a safe and secure environment…

The PMOI has been encouraging peaceful methods in its surrounding community for the establishment of a secure and democratic Iraq and has respected the laws of Iraq. The relationship between the PMOI and inhabitants of regions surrounding Ashraf has played a positive role in providing security in the area… The Iraqis who have talked to our forces have expressed positive and sympathetic opinion about residents of Ashraf.9

Many members of parliaments in Europe, including Lord Slynn of Hadley, former judge at the European Court of Justice and a former Law Lord in Britain, who visited Ashraf on a number of occasions, report finding its residents to be an extraordinary collection of mainly middle-class, university-educated activists united by their genuine commitment to bringing democracy to their homeland.

The Friends of a Free Iran Inter-group in the European Parliament sent delegations to Ashraf four times, most recently in June 2008. Following detailed investigations, it too concluded that allegations of mistreatment of the People of Ashraf were totally unfounded.

During these visits, parliamentarians also had the opportunity to speak privately with hundreds of members of the PMOI, both male and female and, as reflected in their reports, formed the impression that PMOI members are sincerely committed to bringing about a political transformation in Iran through democratic means.

Moreover, the many rallies and gatherings of PMOI supporters around the world, in which tens of thousands of Iranians of all walks of life participate, belie the characterization of the group as in any way resembling a cult. After a 30,000-strong meeting near Paris in July 2006, The New York Times quite correctly observed that “Mrs. Rajavi has built a loyal following among middle-class Iranian immigrants across Europe.” 10

At the End there is always a Beginning: Is it right to allow” Those who serve the Scavengers” pave the way for a Humanitarian Catastrophe?

A Frank Discussion Concerning Murder And Abortion In America

Hey America, Lets talk about ethics, about justice, about judgment to come, about how murder has become common place, and about Yahweh’s forgiven.

Having read this article’s introduction you understand that an Alaskan woman was found guilty of abandoning her infant in a closet in her parent’s home, causing the death of the infant. There it’s dead body was found rotting some weeks afterward. A pretty gruesome thing to do eh? Yeah, sounds like something out of a horror story, or maybe you might say it sounds like something straight out of the pit of hell! A mother, abandoning the infant that came forth from her own body, and that was meant by the creator to be nourished at her breasts and cradled in her arms. This mother placed her child in a closet where it was left to misery and death, out of the immediate detection of anyone who could have acted to save it’s life, before which she had wrapped it in a plastic bag to enclose the smell of the unavoidable decomposition that her child’s body would experience.

A story like this prompts a sane mind to ask a few questions. First of all, how it is that a mother could care so little about her child’s life? After that, this question comes to mind. How could she think she could ever get away with it, for sooner or later the remains of the child’s body would have to be found? It could not be hidden forever in her parent’s spare bedroom closet. Then this question comes to mind. Didn’t she think that there would be some sort of punishment for such an action?” Although these are all basic questions that arise in such a story I am not sure we can answer them here and now, and besides that, these questions are offered by this article’s author to cause us to focus on an evil much greater in scope than that of the woman against her child.

10 Reasons To Remove Criminal Record Expungement Convictions

There are many problems with the purpose of happen while the background is not refine, and employs the majority of them make not hold the impression of their disability can be understood. Here are criminal record expungement ten reasons pro the demand to the law to withdraw. Radiation may possibly be easier to load and again the hope with the purpose of they disappeared from the “life” with the purpose of can appear from errors in a long occasion since.

1. Employment
– Employers often rubbish to job seekers with criminal records.
– Some countries allow employers be exempt from duty, was sentenced

2. Education
– Condemned superior education students in 1998 to drug offenses using a give somebody a loan of or occupation to step support.
– A criminal can prevent from participating in the university selection or exclusion

3. Home
– It can not officially rubbish to hire fill from criminal convictions.

4. Loans
– criminal record expungement history aside, can a give somebody a loan of be granted, or to construct a superior concern rate
– Some crime can not eliminate the odds of students receiving pecuniary aid

5. Licensing and Certification
– To get out of penalties and licensing and certification of the state.
– new than partially of U.S. States are not regulated by the value of criminal conviction in order on the demand of employment certificate.

6. Insurance Rates
– Contributions may possibly be superior if the cancellation is a criminal record expungement.
– Specific crime “insurance” or “high risk”.

7. Gun Rights
– Is hunting down the righteous archery or silence carriers are incomplete.
– Objections to limit gun ownership.

8. Federal assistance
– Many countries rubbish to grant judgments of fill and broadcast support pro federally funded food stamps.
– Many broadcast housing agencies access to housing support of the Federal Government on the basis of arrests, which prohibit conviction.

9. Adoption
– Fifteen members of the criminal record expungement appeal to their parents or relations attention home town.

10. Volunteers
– Almost all undeveloped fill to volunteer requires a criminal highest.

criminal record expungement check the odds to repeal the registration is gratis
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Crime Fighting Computer Systems And Databases

As crime globalizes, so does crime fighting. Mobsters, serial killers, and terrorists cross state lines and borders effortlessly, making use of the latest advances in mass media, public transportation, telecommunications, and computer networks. The police – there are 16,000 law enforcement agencies in the Unites States alone – is never very far behind.

Quotes from the official Web pages of some of these databases:

National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC)

Its mission is to combine investigative and operational support functions, research, and training in order to provide assistance, without charge, to federal, state, local, and foreign law enforcement agencies investigating unusual or repetitive violent crimes. The NCAVC also provides support through expertise and consultation in non-violent matters such as national security, corruption, and white-collar crime investigations.

It comprises the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU), Child Abduction and Serial Murder Investigative Resources Center (CASMIRC), and Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP).

VICAP is a nationwide data information center designed to collect, collate, and analyze crimes of violence – specifically murder. It collates and analyzes the significant characteristics of all murders, and other violent offenses.

Homicide Investigation Tracking System (HITS)

A program within the Washington state’s Attorney General’s Office that tracks and investigates homicides and rapes.

Violent Crime Linkage System (ViCLAS)

Canada-wide computer system that assists specially trained investigators to identify serial crimes and criminals by focusing on the linkages that exist among crimes by the same offender. This system was developed by the RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) in the early 1990s.

UTAP, stands for The Utah Criminal Tracking and Analysis Project

Gathers experts from forensic science, crime scene analysis, psychiatry and other fields to screen unsolved cases for local law enforcement agencies.

International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO) – Interpol’s DNA Gateway

Provides for the transfer of profile data between two or more countries and for the comparison of profiles that conform to Interpol standards in a centralized database. Investigators can access the database via their Interpol National Central Bureau (NCB) using Interpol’s secure global police communications system, I-24/7.

Interpol’s I-24/7

Global communication system to connect its member countries and provide them with user-friendly access to police information. Using this system, Interpol National Central Bureaus (NCBs) can search and cross-check data in a matter of seconds, with direct and immediate access to databases containing critical information (ASF Nominal database of international criminals, electronic notices, stolen motor vehicles, stolen/lost/counterfeit travel and ID documents, stolen works of art, payment cards, fingerprints and photographs, a terrorism watch list, a DNA database, disaster victim identification, international weapons tracking and trafficking in human beings-related information, etc).

Interpol Fingerprints

Provides information on the development and implementation of fingerprinting systems for the general public and international law enforcement entities.

Europol (European Union’s criminal intelligence agency) Computer System (TECS)

Member States can directly input data into the information system in compliance with their national procedures, and Europol can directly input data supplied by non EU Member States and third bodies. Also provides analyses and indexing services.

Missouri – Public Arrest Records

The implementation of the Missouri Sunshine Law has mandated the local government of Missouri to let their resident’s access their public records whenever they need it. Missouri Public Arrest Records is just one of the many documents available to the public. An Arrest record is generated when a person commits offenses and crimes.

There is a lot of information that can be found on the arrest records of Missouri. One would be able to know the real name of the offender as well as the date when the person was born. Details about the arrest of the individual are indicated on the file. This includes the place and date when the person was arrested. Details about the crimes that the individual has been reported of are also indicated on the file along with the charges, and the sentence given to the individual. If the individual was released from the arrest, the date when the release was done is indicated on the file.

Conducting a background check on people is one of the common reasons for the retrieval; of an arrest record in Missouri. With the rampant crimes happening everywhere, one cannot be sure of their own safety, thus many would check out the criminal history of those they interact with in order to make sure that they are in a safe environment. This is also true for employers, they want to make sure that the people they hire are qualified and have good records. This document is also used by investigators so they can proceed studying a certain criminal case.

The public criminal records of Missouri are being kept at the office of the Criminal Justice Information Services. One can request for an arrest record at the mentioned office. The retrieval of a record would cost a fee but this may depend on the information obtained as well as the kind of document it was.

The retrieval of an arrest records has been made convenient with the se of the Internet. Online records are being managed by the State Highway Patrol database. The information stored on the system is updated every day to be able to deliver accurate results to the people. If the file is still used in court proceedings, the file is kept confidential until the case has been resolved and closed. In order to use the system, the formation about the record that is being obtained is necessary to hasten the search.

It is not only the website of the State Highway Patrol ground that provides information about the arrest of an individual since a lot of private-owned websites now offer the same services online. These websites even have a free criminal arrest records search to allow the users to test their system. The results of the free search is not as accurate as the one obtained from the paid search. This is the reason why many still prefer the paid search.

Understanding Torts and Crimes

For many years I’ve lived with the vague knowledge that crimes and torts are both punishable offenses, but I never bothered to investigate the difference between them till now. So here are some notes I want to share.

First we must break apart the term Law. In the United States “the Law” divides into two categories: Private law and Public law.

Private Law: Torts

As the title implies, this type of law guides the relations of individuals and businesses in a community (hamlet, town, city, county, state, or country). When violations of private law occur, then we say that a ‘tort’ has been committed.

Other subtleties mark torts, such as to whether the infraction was intentional or from an act of negligence. This distinction allows for fair treatment of the wrong-doer, and a fair and just compensation to the injured party. An action against the offender is called a cause of action (civil suit).

The most common torts are:

* Unfair competitive practices
* Slander – a false and oral besmirch on an individual’s reputation.
* Libel – a false and written besmirch on an individual’s reputation
* Personal injury – damages due to accidents, defective products (product liability), and other malpractices.
* Fraud – intentional deceit.

Public Law: Crimes

Public law applies to the relationships between individuals or businesses and society. When an infraction against the community occurs, a crime occurs. It is the job of public defenders -district attorneys- to defend the public interest. An action against the offender is called a prosecution.

Crimes are categorized by Congress as felonies and misdemeanors (also referred to as ‘lesser crimes,” although there are many different types of crimes that fall under each class.

The most common crimes are:

* Break-ins, burglary, theft, robbery.
* Forgery – the intentional altering, distorting, and defacing documents (to include signatures).
* The use of deceptive weights, measures, or labels – Most States have bureaus that supervise the standards set by law: If a motorist asks for 10 gallons of gas, did he actually get 10 gallons? Was it premium or regular? Does the cereal box really contain 10 ounces?
* The ill use of mails with the intention to defraud others.
* Receipt of stolen property.
* Filing fraudulent income tax returns.
* Embezzlement – the misappropriation of funds.

Some crimes, such as embezzlement, may be both: a tort and a crime, as we saw in the case of Bernie Madoff. Not only did the disgraced financier abuse the private trust of his clients, but also the public trust.

For both torts and crimes, common law statutes of limitations apply. This simply means that actions for remedy must be brought within the allowed periods of time, or the case will “run out.”

For military personnel, both torts and crimes are covered under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Unit commanders exercise discretion as to whether to punish under Article 15 of the Code, or to convene a court martial.

Conclusion:

While private law’s purpose is to allow the injured party to recover and be compensated for damages suffered, public law in addition to recovery of damages, frequently punishes transgressors with incarceration.

Marciano Guerrero

Retired Investment Banker, Corporate Controller, graduate of Columbia University, and Vietnam Vet (1967-1968).

To learn the writing techniques I use, see Mary Duffy’s e-book: [http://sentenceopeners.com]

To read my book reviews of the Classics visit my blog: [http://writingtolive.com]

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How To Become A Real Crime Scene Technician

The popularity of those true-crime and crime scene technician programs on television have not only attracted a large audience of loyal fans, but have also inspired thousands of students to enter criminal law, forensic sciences, and law enforcement schools, all in hopes of joining the ranks of forensic lab and field technicians across the country. Because the field is so varied, the training can literally come from a host of different sources, and will continue on past gaining the necessary degrees or certifications, so that they can readily keep up with the ever-changing technology.

The skills you will learn in school to become a crime scene investigator are so needed these days that any certification or degree will easily lead to a career that is much in demand. Law enforcement, legal practices and even the federal government have openings for dedicated forensics professionals from all walks of life, and education.

Where to Begin Your Crime Scene Technician Training

There are so many different ways to begin your training in forensic science. Enrolling in any technical school that offers classes in criminal justice is one way to begin. Attending an accredited college or university program is another. And, these days, you can even begin your job training online, at your own pace, allowing you to take care of your beginning classes, and formal training over whatever period of time you require.

Beginning with criminal justice training is the smartest way, as you will be learning everything that you will need to be part of law enforcement, the largest employers of technician anywhere. This type of background is essential to your formal training to work in the field gathering evidence, securing crime scenes and interviewing potential witnesses as part of your daily job description.

Career Education Requirements

Before you can get into the science of forensic technology itself, you should have a good knowledge of the physical sciences, chemistry, biology, math and anatomy physiology. Along with this course of study, outside of the technology itself, the best school to enter after the general courses are behind you, is the school of criminal justice.

Because most crime scene investigator and technician positions are actually filled within law enforcement, it is essential that any student planning on having this kind of specialized career study the first couple of years as if they were becoming a police officer in the field. In some jurisdictions, the CSI functions as operating police officers in emergency situations, so all of this training will come in handy, even if the television shows may tell you otherwise.

Criminal Justice Training

You can either attend an actual criminal justice school, or complete the necessary criminal justice courses online while you complete the technical and science requirements at a university. However you wish to do so the bulk of your criminal justice training should include as many of the following courses as you can complete for the full spectrum of training available:

Criminal Law
Crime Scene Evidence
Criminal Investigation
Crime Scene Photography
Evidence Collection
Evidence Analysis and Interpretation

The next set of courses only requires that you show a proficiency in, so that you can work with law enforcement agencies, while pursuing your main career:

Shooting
Defensive Tactics
First Aid
Fingerprinting, including applications, techniques and interpretation
Bloodstain Analysis
Forensic Photography
Footwear Identification Proficiency

Employment Outlook and Opportunities

There are a large number of crimes that occur unfortunately on a regular basis that will require the specialized expertise of a crime scene technician. Assaults, burglaries, rapes, kidnappings, suicides, vehicular crimes, and murder will all allow you to utilize every skill you have learned so that you can be an important part of the investigation team.

Job opportunities for professional technicians can be found in law enforcement, fire departments, pathology labs, hospitals, medical examiners offices, and even insurance and detective agencies. This means that the current outlook is very good, and the number of openings is expected to grow over the next few years, as the field expands.

Here’s your chance to join the real CSI teams and become a true crime solver! Visit [http://www.theforensicssciencecolleges.com/] and discover the careers in forensic science. Learn how you can get started in these specialized careers.

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The Rule of Law

One of the most fundamental requirements of a civil society is the rule of law which means that the people must follow the law of the land irrespective of his or her status or position in the society. In the modern world, the developed countries feel proud that their society is governed by the rule of law while most developing countries like India feel ashamed that their society does not have the rule of law. The developed countries are the role model for the underdeveloped countries, where the rule of law is still a distant dream.

Societies that follow rule of law are often considered more civilized as there is much more order in the society. Every thing in such societies appears to be in order. The roads are clean, lawns and parks are well-maintained, government officials work in office, trains and public transports run on time. Further, there is virtually no corruption in public offices. People are well paid, deliver better efficiencies and keep everything neat and clean. These societies appear perfect to the people of other parts of the world, who often wonder why they can’t be like them.

All societies need laws for their existence. Even though the laws may be different in each society, yet there are some basic principles that are common to all laws of the world. These fundamental principles are equality, fraternity, justice and liberty. The Indian constitution, for example, incorporates these goals in the preamble to the constitution which seeks to secure for all its citizens justice, liberty, equality and to promote among them the spirit of fraternity.

These principles are so universal in nature that they find place in every civilized society of the world. It is matter of great surprise that in reality the outcome of the rule of law is just the opposite. The more civilized a society is, the more is the inequality among its population – more injustice to the have-nots, less liberty due to strict enforcement of law and more hatred among the citizens based on race, caste and religion. What goes wrong in the implementation in the so-called rule of law?

Law of Nature

Indian thinkers in the Vedic period, i.e. around 3000 years before the birth of Christ, discovered that the universe does not perform its functions at random but follows certain laws. These were called “Rita” or the universal laws or principles that guided the universe. The progress of man can be largely attributed in understanding these basic principles of nature and exploiting them for the benefit of the human race at the cost of the rest of the creations. The laws of man, therefore, run contrary to the laws of nature as they are human-centric and not designed for all the creations of God or Nature.

One of the basic differences between man-made-laws and the laws of Nature is that the laws of nature are spontaneous as they require no effort in implementation. For example, in a natural piece of earth like a forest, the earth produces trees, plants, fruits and vegetables spontaneously without any need of watering or breeding. The nature itself provides timely rain and fertilizer to the new plants. The forests and the mountains are covered with greenery and beauty, which is purely natural since it comes without any effort.

On the contrary, the man-made creations like parks, trees, plants are artificially made. They too may look as beautiful as the natural ones, yet they cannot survive without regular effort on the part of man. Imagine a park, which is not maintained for a few months, or a house not cleaned for months. It will lose all its beauty and soon be filled with dust and weeds. No building or modern gadget can survive without external effort from man. However, all natural creations are able to survive on their own and maintain their existence; and enjoy their life without any external support.

The laws of nature are just as they treat every specie (and not only man) with equality. In a jungle, every specie gets its due share of food, air and water which enable them to live a dignified life without being dependent on any other creation. Nature makes no distinction between one specie, and the other as all species are the children of the same God.

However, in the man’s world, every other creature is killed if it is not useful for man. They can survive only if they can be useful for man. Thus man’s world does not treat any other creature of the nature with respect and does not provide them any right of equality, liberty, justice or fraternity. He cleverly usurps this universal law and makes it applicable only for human beings. For all other lesser species, he has created a man-made-law, calling it ‘the law of jungle’ or ‘the survival of the fittest’ which justifies his domination over the weak creations. The fact, on the contrary, is that the laws of jungle are far more just and equal for all species than the man-made-law.

Most men are not concerned about the way they treat the lesser animals as they feel that ‘the survival of the fittest’ theory is more logical than the laws of nature. However, they forget that every principle created in the universe has to be applied on them also and that they may not always be a beneficiary. Man-made-laws do not stop with animals but they soon spread their wings to encompass human beings, too. This is where conflicts between man and man starts that gives rise to hatred and wars. Man feels the pinch when the law of jungle is applied against them and the law of nature is denied to him. He is hurt when he is treated like weeds by the society.

Weeds: The Undesirable Plants of Nature?

One of the most interesting creations of the natural world is weed. Weeds are undesirable vegetation in the kingdom of plants. Weeds are defined as any plant that is not valued by the human society and usually tends to overgrow or compete with valued flora. Weeds are the plants which are considered by human beings as unattractive, undesirable, or troublesome.

In the natural world, man has to continuously fight against weeds to make their artificial plants survive. Weeds grow automatically and if the artificial gardens do not have the support of man, it is soon overpowered by weeds and the whole field or garden becomes full of weeds. Weeds are created by Nature (God) as no human effort is required to grow them. They are, however, so powerful that man has to continuously guard his creation from these weeds, lest all creation of the civilized society is destroyed. Weeds are as undesirable to man in the world of plants as criminals in the human society.

Criminals: The Necessary Evil for the Civil Society

Similar to weeds in the natural world, there is a growth of criminals in civilized societies. Who these criminals are? Why do they grow? Whether the criminals are healthy people or are they mentally ill as often thought by the civilized world?

Criminals are defined as the people who commit crime. Crime is defined as an act that is a violation of the criminal law that is punishable by law. Crime is usually considered an evil act and criminals are often seen as evil created by Devil, out there to destroy the civilized citizens, the children of God.

There are many similarities between criminals and weeds. Criminals grow automatically in every society and the society has to work hard to weed out these criminals. Criminals like weeds are so powerful and competitive that they have the power to defeat the civilized people. They are, therefore, fought jointly by the society. Yet in every society, there is crime and there are criminals. We are used to look criminals as evil that is unnecessary just like weeds. Yet if God (Nature) is the creator of all, then everything in this world must have been created with a purpose. “What could be the purpose of creation of criminals?” We wonder.

Criminals are, as a matter of fact, creation of the civilized world. In an uncivilized world, there would be no law, so there can be no violation of law and hence, no criminal. If we wish to understand the utility of criminals in the civilized world, we must imagine the world of nature without weeds. In such a world, all plants will have to be grown by man with artificial watering – canals, tube-wells, and other irrigation systems used for agriculture. In all certainty, man will grow only such crops and plants that are useful to man and the rest of the species would surely not survive in the man’s world. Further, man’s energy is limited and with all his effort, he can hardly take care of a minuscule part of the world by artificial plantation, so the rest of the physical world would be without plants and so without oxygen and other animal life and eco-system. This will soon lead to the end of the world including the human being.

The role of criminals is similar to the role of the weeds. Imagine a world without crime i.e. everyone follows the law of the land without questioning. It will only provide status quo in the world. Kings will always be kings and only their children or loved ones can become kings. Poor will always be poor. Kings will frame more inhuman laws that would give them more powers. The less fortunate people would die out of hunger and poverty as they won’t break the law and the state will have no obligation to feed them. Thus the world without criminals would be a place where people will die due to inaction, boredom and cruelty. Such an ideal world, indeed, would be the most inhuman and most undesirable to mankind.

Thankfully, people called criminals automatically grow in every civil society as soon as man creates laws to govern it. The laws of man are always challenged by them since they are mostly against the laws of nature i.e. equality, justice, liberty and fraternity. States always have to face opposition from such people who break the law and are known as criminals. They may have an ugly appearance as weeds but they only provide oxygen to the society for its life. Thus in posterity, people recognize them not as criminals but as heroes.

The Path of Heroism

While man hates criminals, he worships the heroes. He can lay his most valuable possession i.e. his life on a single call from his hero. Who are these heroes? Are they law-abiding civilized people or the law-defying criminals? Take the example of Mahatma Gandhi in the modern world. He was perhaps the biggest criminal in the time of the British rule in India and he was jailed many times on charges of being waging war against the state. He spent more than 15 years in jail for his various crimes. Yet the people of India call him ‘Father of the Nation’ and love him more than any civilized person on the earth. Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in jail, yet he is a national hero not only for South Africa but for the entire world.

In history, we can find numerous examples of great people who have broken the law and having been punished for their criminal acts. The list includes people like Christ, Prophet Mohammad, Socrates and Galileo. Yet it is these people who changed the history of the world and they are rightly worshiped as heroes by the masses even after their death.

How many people you have ever known who have become heroes without breaking the law and committing crimes in their time? Perhaps none. Heroes are created not by following the law but by breaking the law.

Rule of Divine Law

It is not always good to follow the law blindly as it provides order and rule of law in the society but kills the humanity as the implementation of most of the man-made laws are against the natural laws. Man-made laws are often disguised under the cover of natural laws like equality, justice, liberty and fraternity yet they serve just the opposite purpose. Most people see the letter of the law but fail to grasp its spirit. One must understand that breaking man-made laws is one of the fundamental requirements of all civil societies, if it contradicts the natural or divine laws. Thus every person who breaks the law need not be a criminal. One must go deeper into the facts before declaring a law-breaker to be a criminal. The key distinction perhaps would be to see if he is breaking the law for the interest of the humanity or for his own selfish end. Is it need-based or greed-based? There lies the distinction between good and evil, between a true criminal and a hero. One who is breaking a law for others or to fight injustice is a hero and not a criminal. A poet said “Jo lade din ke khet, Sura toi” (One who fights for the weak is the real hero).

Mr. Awdhesh K Singh holds his B. Tech. from Institute of Technology, Bananas Hindu University Varanasi and M. Tech. from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. He was granted study leave for the PhD course in 2002, for doing PhD from ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM) Gwalior, India. His PhD thesis on the topic “Expert System based Decision Support System for E-Governance: An Application to Indian Customs” is undergoing evaluation.

He has published several papers in International Journals and Conferences on the subject of E-governance and the application of Artificial Intelligence tools like Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Expert Systems (ES) for Indian Customs. He also has keen interest in the study and application of Indian Philosophies for solving the real-life problems of the modern world.

Many of his articles are published on the website of Aatmic Science Forum http://www.aatmicscience.com

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Criminal Law Information

According to criminal law, crimes are offences against the social order. In common law jurisdictions, there is a legal fiction that crimes disturb the peace of the sovereign. Government officials, as agents of the sovereign, are responsible for the prosecution of offenders. Hence, the criminal law “plaintiff” is the sovereign, which in practical terms translates into the monarch or the people.

The major objective of criminal law is deterrence and punishment, while that of civil law is individual compensation. Criminal offences consist of two distinct elements; the physical act (the actus reus, guilty act) and the requisite mental state with which the act is done (the mens rea, guilty mind). For example, in murder the ‘actus reus is the unlawful killing of a person, while the ‘mens rea is malice aforethought (the intention to kill or cause grievous injury). The criminal law also details the defenses that defendants may bring to lessen or negate their liability (criminal responsibility) and specifies the punishment which may be inflicted. Criminal law neither requires a victim, nor a victim’s consent, to prosecute an offender. Furthermore, a criminal prosecution can occur over the objections of the victim and the consent of the victim is not a defense in most crimes.

Criminal law in most jurisdictions both in the common and civil law traditions is divided into two fields:

* Criminal procedure regulates the process for addressing violations of criminal law

* Substantive criminal law details the definition of, and punishments for, various crimes.

Criminal law distinguishes crimes from civil wrongs such as tort or breach of contract. Criminal law has been seen as a system of regulating the behavior of individuals and groups in relation to societal norms at large whereas civil law is aimed primarily at the relationship between private individuals and their rights and obligations under the law. Although many ancient legal systems did not clearly define a distinction between criminal and civil law, in England there was little difference until the codification of criminal law occurred in the late nineteenth century. In most U.S. law schools, the basic course in criminal law is based upon the English common criminal law of 1750 (with some minor American modifications like the clarification of mens rea in the Model Penal Code).

Types of criminal law are: Arrests and Searches, Drug Crimes, Juvenile Law, Drunk Driving / DUI / DWI , Parole, Probation, Pardons, Violent Crimes, White Collar Crimes and Military Law.

Criminal Law, please visit Free Legal Information.

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